Portmanteau

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Template:Short description Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Hatnote' not found. Script error: No such module "Unsubst". Template:Use dmy datesA portmanteau (Template:IPAc-en, Template:IPAc-en) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau", a kind of luggage) is a blend of words[1] in which parts of multiple words are combined into a new word,[1][2][3] as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog,[2][4] or motel, from motor and hotel.[5] In linguistics, a portmanteau is a single morph that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying morphemes.[6][7][8][9]

A portmanteau word is similar to a contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a single concept. A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is a compound, not a portmanteau, of star and fish, as it includes both words in full.

Origin

The word portmanteau was introduced in this sense by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass (1871),[10] where Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of unusual words used in "Jabberwocky".[11] Slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy means "miserable and flimsy". Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: Template:Quote

In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll again uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection:[11] Template:Quote

In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase that opened into two equal sections. According to the OED Online, a portmanteau is a "case or bag for carrying clothing and other belongings when travelling; (originally) one of a form suitable for carrying on horseback; (now esp.) one in the form of a stiff leather case hinged at the back to open into two equal parts".[12] According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD), the etymology of the word is the French Script error: No such module "Lang"., from Script error: No such module "Lang"., "to carry", and Script error: No such module "Lang"., "cloak" (from Old French Script error: No such module "Lang"., from Latin Script error: No such module "Lang".).[13] According to the OED Online, the etymology of the word is the "officer who carries the mantle of a person in a high position (1507 in Middle French), case or bag for carrying clothing (1547), clothes rack (1640)".[12] In modern French, a Script error: No such module "Lang". is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats, umbrellas and the like.[14][15][16]

An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word".[17]

Examples in English

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The original Gerrymander pictured in an 1812 cartoon. The word is a portmanteau of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry's name with salamander.

Many neologisms are examples of blends, but many blends have become part of the lexicon.[11] In Punch in 1896, the word brunch (breakfast + lunch) was introduced as a "portmanteau word."[18] In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar chose the portmanteau word Tanzania as its name. Similarly Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia.

Some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana border, while Calexico and Mexicali are respectively the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, which is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger (a tigon is a similar cross in which the male is a tiger).

Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software; the cheese Cambozola combines a similar rind to Camembert with the same mould used to make Gorgonzola; passenger rail company Amtrak, a portmanteau of America and track; Velcro, a portmanteau of the French Script error: No such module "Lang". (velvet) and Script error: No such module "Lang". (hook); Verizon, a portmanteau of Script error: No such module "Lang". (Latin for truth) and horizon; and ComEd (a Chicago-area electric utility company), a portmanteau of Commonwealth and Edison.

Jeoportmanteau! is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy! The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words Jeopardy and portmanteau. Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together.

Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived redistricting; the perimeter of one of the districts thereby created resembled a very curvy salamander in outline. The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms bjelkemander and playmander.

Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "Brexit".

Many portmanteau words receive some use but do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a spork is an eating utensil that is a combination of a spoon and a fork, and a skort is an item of clothing that is part skirt, part shorts. On the other hand, turducken, a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, and the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010.

Similarly, the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though initially the word was a gaffe, it was recognized as the New Oxford American DictionaryTemplate:'s "Word of the Year" in 2010.[19]

The business lexicon is replete with newly formed portmanteau words like "permalance" (permanent freelance), "advertainment" (advertising as entertainment), "advertorial" (a blurred distinction between advertising and editorial), "infotainment" (information about entertainment or itself intended to entertain by its manner of presentation), and "infomercial" (informational commercial).

Company and product names may also use portmanteau words: examples include Timex (a portmanteau of Time [referring to Time magazine] and Kleenex),[20] Renault's Twingo (a combination of twist, swing and tango),[21] and Garmin (portmanteau of company founders' first names Gary Burrell and Min Kao).

Name-meshing

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Two proper names can also be used in creating a portmanteau word in reference to the partnership between people, especially in cases where both persons are well-known, or sometimes to produce epithets such as "Billary" (referring to former United States president Bill Clinton and his wife, former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton). In this example of recent American political history, the purpose for blending is not so much to combine the meanings of the source words but "to suggest a resemblance of one named person to the other"; the effect is often derogatory, as linguist Benjamin Zimmer states.[22] By contrast, the public, including the media, use portmanteaus to refer to their favorite pairings as a way to "...giv[e] people an essence of who they are within the same name."[23] This is particularly seen in cases of fictional and real-life "supercouples". An early known example, Bennifer, referred to film stars Ben Affleck and Jennifer Lopez. Other examples include Brangelina (Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie) and TomKat (Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes).[23] "Desilu Productions" was a Los Angeles, California-based company jointly owned by couple and actors Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball. Miramax is the combination of the first names of the parents of the Weinstein brothers. On Wednesday, 28 June 2017, The New York Times crossword included the quip, "How I wish Natalie Portman dated Jacques Cousteau, so I could call them 'Portmanteau'".[24]

Holidays are another example, as in Thanksgivukkah, a portmanteau neologism given to the convergence of the American holiday of Thanksgiving and the first day of the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah on Thursday, 28 November 2013.[25][26] Chrismukkah is another pop-culture portmanteau neologism popularized by the TV drama The O.C., merging of the holidays of Christianity's Christmas and Judaism's Hanukkah.

In the Disney film Big Hero 6, the film is situated in a fictitious city called "San Fransokyo", which is a portmanteau of two real locations, San Francisco and Tokyo.[27]

Other languages

French

The French linguistic term Script error: No such module "Lang"., literally a "suitcase-word", is a relatively recent back-translation from English, attested only since 1970.Template:Cn

Although the French language in France is regulated by the Académie française (which has had a conservative attitude to neologisms), portmanteau words such as Script error: No such module "Lang". (frenglish) are produced. Authors have used the technique in literature (e.g. Boris Vian) and companies and other entities to create brands such as Transilien (Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang"., Île-de-France transportation system).Template:NoteTag Recent portmanteau examples are Douzelage (from Script error: No such module "Lang". [twelve] and Script error: No such module "Lang". [twinning]) and Script error: No such module "Lang". (from Script error: No such module "Lang". ["japanese"] and Script error: No such module "Lang". ["inanity"]).

The French language in Quebec, Canada, also has a regulatory body, the Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF). It tends to produce neologisms to replace anglicisms. It created the portmanteaus Script error: No such module "Lang". (e-mail) from Script error: No such module "Lang". (mail) and Script error: No such module "Lang". (electronic), and Script error: No such module "Lang". (online chatting) from Script error: No such module "Lang". (keyboard) and Script error: No such module "Lang". (chatter), for example.

Modern Hebrew

Modern Hebrew abounds with European mechanisms such as blending: Along with CD, or simply Template:Script/Hebrew (Disk), Hebrew has the blend Template:Script/Hebrew (taklitor), which consists of Template:Script/Hebrew (taklít, Phonograph record) and Template:Script/Hebrew (or, light). Modern Hebrew is full of portmanteau blends, such as the following:[28]

Other blends include the following:

Sometimes the root of the second word is truncated, giving rise to a blend that resembles an acrostic:

Irish

A few portmanteaus are in use in modern Irish, for example:

  • Brexit is referred to as Script error: No such module "Lang". (from Script error: No such module "Lang"., "Britain", and Script error: No such module "Lang"., "leave") or Script error: No such module "Lang". (from Script error: No such module "Lang"., "England," and Script error: No such module "Lang"., "out")[29][30]
  • The resignation of Tánaiste (deputy prime minister) Frances Fitzgerald was referred to as Script error: No such module "Lang". (from Script error: No such module "Lang"., "goodbye" and Tánaiste)[31][32]
  • Script error: No such module "Lang".. an Irish-language preschool (from Script error: No such module "Lang"., "infants," and Script error: No such module "Lang"., "band")[33]
  • The Irish translation of A Game of Thrones refers to Winterfell castle as Script error: No such module "Lang". (from Script error: No such module "Lang"., "winter," and Script error: No such module "Lang"., "exposed to winds")[34]
  • Script error: No such module "Lang". (from English jail and Script error: No such module "Lang"., "Irish-speaking region"): the community of Irish-speaking republican prisoners.[35]

Icelandic

There is a tradition of linguistic purism in Icelandic, and neologisms are frequently created from pre-existing words. For example, Tölva ("computer") is a portmanteau of tala ("digit; number") and völva ("oracle or seeress").[36]

Indonesian

Template:Refimprove-section In Indonesian, portmanteaus are often used as both formal and informal acronyms and referrals. Many organizations and government bodies use them for brevity. Journalists often create portmanteaus for particular historical moments. Examples include:

Formal and journalism uses:

Informal uses, for example:

  • Asbun = Asal bunyi: carelessly speaking
  • Mafia = matematika + fisika + kimia: math, physics, and chemistry, three school subjects that are often related with arithmetic
  • Caper = cari perhatian: attention seeker
  • Warnet = warung internet: internet cafe
  • Alay = anak layangan: unfashionable people
  • Copas = Copy paste: copying other people's work without permission
  • Ropang = roti panggang: toasted bread
  • Nasgor = nasi goreng

Japanese

Script error: No such module "main". A very common type of portmanteau in Japanese forms one word from the beginnings of two others (that is, from two back-clippings).[38] The portion of each input word retained is usually two morae, which is tantamount to one kanji in most words written in kanji.

The inputs to the process can be native words, Sino-Japanese words, gairaigo (later borrowings), or combinations thereof. A Sino-Japanese example is the name Script error: No such module "Nihongo". for the University of Tokyo, in full Script error: No such module "Nihongo".. With borrowings, typical results are words such as Script error: No such module "Nihongo"., meaning personal computer (PC), which despite being formed of English elements does not exist in English; it is a uniquely Japanese contraction of the English Script error: No such module "Nihongo".. Another example, Script error: No such module "Nihongo"., is a contracted form of the English words Script error: No such module "Nihongo". and Script error: No such module "Nihongo"..[39] A famous example of a blend with mixed sources is Script error: No such module "Nihongo"., blending the Japanese word for Script error: No such module "Nihongo". and the Greek word Script error: No such module "Nihongo".. The Japanese egg-shaped key chain pet toy fad from the 1990s, Tamagotchi, is a portmanteau combining the two Japanese words tamago (たまご), which means "egg", and uotchi (ウオッチ) "watch". The portmanteau can also be seen as a combination of tamago (たまご), "egg", and tomodachi (友だち), which means "friend".

Some Anime titles also are portmanteaus, such as Hetalia (ヘタリア). It came from Hetare (ヘタレ), which means "idiot", and Itaria (イタリア) which means Italy. Another example is Servamp, which came from the English words Servant (サーヴァント) and Vampire (ヴァンパイア).

Portuguese

In Brazilian Portuguese, portmanteaus are usually slang, including:

  • Cantriz, from cantora (female singer) and atriz (actress), which defines women that both sing and act.[40][41]
  • Aborrescente, from aborrecer (annoy) and adolescente (teenager), which is a pejorative term for teenagers.[42][43]
  • Pescotapa, from pescoço (neck) and tapa (slap), which defines a slap on the back of the neck.[44][45]

In European Portuguese, portmanteaus are also used. Some of them include:

  • Telemóvel, which means mobile phone, comes from telefone (telephone) and móvel (mobile).[46]
  • Cantautor, which means Singer-songwriter, and comes from cantor (singer) and autor (songwriter).

Spanish

Template:Refimprove-section Although not very common in Spanish, portmanteaus are finding their way into the language mainly through marketing and media efforts, such as in Mexican Spanish 'cafebrería' from 'cafetería' (coffee shop) and 'librería' (bookstore), or Teletón from 'televisión' and 'maratón'. However, it is very frequent in commercial brands of any type (for instance, "chocolleta", from "chocolate" + "galleta", (cookie), and above all family-owned business (of small size, for instance: Rocar, from "Roberto" + "Carlos", and Mafer, from "Maria" + "Fernanda"). Such usages are prompted by the registering of a distinguishable trademark, but with time, commonly, a specific trademark became the name of the all similar products, like in Cola Cao, a name which is very common to use to refer any similar product.

Other examples:

  • Cantautor, which means Singer-songwriter, and comes from cantante (singer) and autor (songwriter).[47]
  • Mecatrónica[48] and Ofimática two Neologisms that are blends of mecánica (mechanical) with electrónica (electronics), and oficina (office) with informática (informatics) respectively.
  • Espanglish, interlanguage that combines words from both Spanish (Español) and English.
  • Metrobús, blend of metro (subway) and autobús.
  • Autopista, blend of automóvil (car) and pista (highway).
  • Trabalenguas, which means tongue twister, from trabar (tangle up, jam) and lengua (tongue).
  • Company names and brands with portmanteaus are common in Spanish. Some examples of Spanish portmanteaus for Mexican companies include: The Mexican flag carrier Aeroméxico, (Aerovías de México), Banorte (Bank and North), Cemex (Cement and Mexico), Jumex (Jugos Mexicanos or Mexican Juice), Mabe (from founders Egon MAbardi and Francisco BErrondo), Pemex (Petróleos Mexicanos or Mexican Oil), Softtek (portmanteau and stylization of Software and technology), and Telmex (Teléfonos de Mexico). Gamesa (Galletera Mexicana, S.A. or Mexican Biscuit Company, Inc.) and Famsa (fabricantes Muebleros, S.A.) are examples of portmanteaus of four words, including the "S.A." (Sociedad Anónima).
  • Many more portmanteaus in Spanish come from Anglicisms, which are words borrowed from English, like módem, transistor, códec, email, internet or emoticon.

A somewhat popular example in Spain is the word Gallifante,[49] a portmanteau of Gallo y Elefante (Cockerel and Elephant). It was the prize on the Spanish version of the children TV show Child's Play (Juego de niños) that ran on the public television channel La 1 of Televisión Española (TVE) from 1988 to 1992.[50]

Portmanteau morph

In linguistics, a blend is an amalgamation or fusion of independent lexemes, while a portmanteau or portmanteau morph is a single morph that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying morphemes.[6] For example, in the Latin word animalis the ending -is is a portmanteau morph because it is used for two morphemes: the singular number and the genitive case. In English two separate morphs are used (of an animal). Other examples include French à leau /o/, and de ledu /dy/.[6]

See also

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Notes

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References

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External links

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Garner's Modern American Usage Template:Webarchive, p. 644.
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  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., and Hyams, N. (2007) An Introduction to Language, Eighth Edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. Template:ISBN.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Template:Cite OED
  13. "Portmanteau". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
  14. Petit Robert: portemanteau – "malle penderie" (suitcase in which clothes hang).
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  16. Such a "coat bag" is mentioned in Chapter 12 of Alexander Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo.
  17. "Frankenwords: They're Alive!" The Guardian, 5 February 2016. Template:Webarchive.
  18. Punch, 1 August 1896, 58/2
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  28. See p. 62 in Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2009), Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns Template:Webarchive, Journal of Language Contact, Varia 2 (2009), pp. 40–67.
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  31. "Slánaiste: Irish Times Letter Writers Have Their Say on the Political Crisis" Template:Webarchive (30 November 2017). The Irish Times. Retrieved from IrishTimes.com, 18 September 2018.
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  36. Kristján Árnason; Sigrún Helgadóttir (1991), "Terminology and Icelandic Language Policy", Behovet och nyttan av terminologiskt arbete på 90-talet, Nordterm 5, Nordterm-symposium, pp. 7–21.
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