Afrikaans

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Afrikaans (Template:IPAc-en, Template:IPAc-en)[1][2] is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular[3][4] of Holland (Hollandic dialect)[5][6] spoken by the Dutch settlers in South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century.[7] Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and the youngest of the Germanic languages as well as one of the youngest languages in general.

Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin.Template:NoteTag Therefore, differences with Dutch often lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, and a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch.Template:Refn There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages, especially in written form.Template:Refn

With about seven million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country.[8] Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 15 and 23 million.Template:NoteTag It has the widest geographic and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, and is widely spoken and understood as a second or third language.Template:NoteTag It is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans (4.8 million people), 60.8% of White South Africans (2.7 million); 4.6% of Indian South Africans (58,000 people), and 1.5% of Black South Africans (600,000 people).[9]

Etymology

The term is derived from the Dutch term Script error: No such module "Lang". (now spelled Script error: No such module "Lang".)[10] meaning "African".[11] It was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" (a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" (a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans in its earlier days). However, it has also been variously described as a Dutch-based creole or as a partially creolised language.[12]

History

Origin

The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century.[13][14] As early as the mid-18th century and as recently as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language" (Template:Lang-af), lacking the prestige accorded, for example, even by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Script error: No such module "Lang". ("Cape Dutch", i.e. Afrikaans) as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included Script error: No such module "Lang"., Script error: No such module "Lang". and Script error: No such module "Lang". ("mutilated/broken/uncivilised Dutch"), as well as Script error: No such module "Lang". ("incorrect Dutch").[15][16]

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Den Besten theorises that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources:[17]

  • Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to Southern Africa, and
  • 'Hottentot Dutch',[18] a pidgin that descended from 'Foreigner Talk' and ultimately from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole.

Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways.

Development

A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces (now Netherlands and Flanders),[19] though up to one-sixth of the community was also of French Huguenot origin, and a seventh from Germany.[20]

African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans. The slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India, Madagascar, and the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia).[21] A number were also indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as interpreters, domestic servants, and labourers. Many free and enslaved women married, cohabited with, or were victims of sexual violence from the male Dutch settlers. M. F. Valkhoff argued that 75% of children born to female slaves in the Dutch Cape Colony between 1652 and 1672 had a Dutch father.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Sarah Grey Thomason and Terrence Kaufman argue that Afrikaans' development as a separate language was "heavily conditioned by nonwhites who learned Dutch imperfectly as a second language."Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Beginning in about 1815, Afrikaans started to replace Malay as the language of instruction in Muslim schools in South Africa, written with the Arabic alphabet: see Arabic Afrikaans. Later, Afrikaans, now written with the Latin script, started to appear in newspapers and political and religious works in around 1850 (alongside the already established Dutch).[13]

In 1875, a group of Afrikaans-speakers from the Cape formed the Script error: No such module "Lang". ("Society for Real Afrikaners"),[13] and published a number of books in Afrikaans including grammars, dictionaries, religious materials and histories. In 1925, Afrikaans was recognised by the South African government as a real language, rather than simply a slang version of Dutch proper.[13]

Recognition

Script error: No such module "Lang". ("this is our passion"), at the Afrikaans Language Monument

Afrikaans was formally considered a Dutch dialect in South Africa until the early 20th century, when it became recognised as a distinct language under South African law, alongside Standard Dutch, which it eventually replaced as an official language.[22] Before the Boer wars, "and indeed for some time afterwards, Afrikaans was regarded as inappropriate for educated discourse. Rather, Afrikaans was described derogatorily as 'a kitchen language' or 'a bastard jargon,' suitable for communication mainly between the Boers and their servants."[23]Template:Better source

On 8 May 1925, twenty-three years after the Second Boer War ended,[23] the Official Languages of the Union Act of 1925 was passed—mostly due to the efforts of the Afrikaans language movement—at a joint sitting of the House of Assembly and the Senate, in which the Afrikaans language was declared a variety of Dutch.[24] The Constitution of 1961 reversed the position of Afrikaans and Dutch, so that English and Afrikaans were the official languages, and Afrikaans was deemed to include Dutch. The Constitution of 1983 removed any mention of Dutch altogether.

The Afrikaans Language Monument is located on a hill overlooking Paarl in the Western Cape Province. Officially opened on 10 October 1975,[25] it was erected on the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Society of Real Afrikaners,[26] and the 50th anniversary of Afrikaans being declared an official language of South Africa in distinction to Dutch.

Standardisation

The side view of the Pretoria Art Museum in Arcadia, Pretoria, with an Afrikaans language sign.

The earliest Afrikaans texts were some doggerel verse from 1795 and a dialogue transcribed by a Dutch traveller in 1825. Afrikaans used the Latin alphabet around this time, although the Cape Muslim community used the Arabic script. In 1861, L.H. Meurant published his Script error: No such module "Lang". ("Conversation between Claus Truthsayer and John Doubter"), which is considered to be the first book published in Afrikaans.[27]

The first grammar book was published in 1876; a bilingual dictionary was later published in 1902. The main modern Afrikaans dictionary in use is the Script error: No such module "Lang". (HAT). A new authoritative dictionary, called Script error: No such module "Lang". (WAT), is under development as of 2018. The official orthography of Afrikaans is the Script error: No such module "Lang"., compiled by Script error: No such module "Lang"..[27]

The Afrikaans Bible

Script error: No such module "main". The Afrikaner religion had stemmed from the Protestant practices of the Reformed church of Holland during the 17th century, later on being influenced in South Africa by British ministries during the 1800s.[28] A landmark in the development of the language was the translation of the whole Bible into Afrikaans. While significant advances had been made in the textual criticism of the Bible, especially the Greek New Testament, the 1933 translation followed the textus receptus and was closely akin to the Script error: No such module "Lang".. Before this, most Cape Dutch-Afrikaans speakers had to rely on the Dutch Script error: No such module "Lang".. This Script error: No such module "Lang". had its origins with the Synod of Dordrecht of 1618 and was thus in an archaic form of Dutch. This was hard for Dutch speakers to understand, and increasingly unintelligible for Afrikaans speakers.

C. P. Hoogehout, Arnoldus Pannevis, and Stephanus Jacobus du Toit were the first Afrikaans Bible translators. Important landmarks in the translation of the Scriptures were in 1878 with C. P. Hoogehout's translation of the Script error: No such module "Lang". (Gospel of Mark, lit. Gospel according to Mark); however, this translation was never published. The manuscript is to be found in the South African National Library, Cape Town.

The first official translation of the entire Bible into Afrikaans was in 1933 by J. D. du Toit, E. E. van Rooyen, J. D. Kestell, H. C. M. Fourie, and BB Keet.[29][30] This monumental work established Afrikaans as Script error: No such module "Lang"., that is "a pure and proper language" for religious purposes, especially amongst the deeply Calvinist Afrikaans religious community that previously had been sceptical of a Bible translation that varied from the Dutch version that they were used to.

In 1983, a fresh translation marked the 50th anniversary of the 1933 version and provided a much-needed revision. The final editing of this edition was done by E. P. Groenewald, A. H. van Zyl, P. A. Verhoef, J. L. Helberg and W. Kempen. This translation was influenced by Eugene Nida's theory of dynamic-equavalence which focussed on finding the nearest equivalent in the receptor language to the idea that the Greek, Hebrew or Aramaic wanted to convey. The challenge to this type of translation is that it doesn't take into account that there are shifts in meaning in the receptor language.Script error: No such module "Unsubst".

A new translation, Die Bybel: 'n Direkte Vertaling was released in November 2020. It is the first truly ecumenical translation of the Bible in Afrikaans as translators from various churches, including the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches, are involved.[31]

Various commercial translations of the Bible in Afrikaans have also appeared since the 1990s, such as Die Boodskap and the Nuwe Lewende Vertaling. Most of these translations were published by Christelike Uitgewersmaatskappy (CUM).Script error: No such module "Unsubst".Template:Vague

In 2019, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures was released in Afrikaans,[32] both printed and electronic versions.

Classification

The simplified relation between the West Germanic languages

Afrikaans descended from Dutch dialects in the 17th century. It belongs to a West Germanic sub-group, the Low Franconian languages.[33] Other West Germanic languages related to Afrikaans are German, English, the Frisian languages, and the unstandardised languages Low German and Yiddish.

Geographic distribution

Statistics

The geographical distribution of Afrikaans in South Africa: proportion of the population that speaks Afrikaans at home. Template:Div col Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend #REDIRECT Template:div col end
Country Speakers Percentage of speakers Year Reference
Template:Country data Australia 43,741 0.61% 2016 [34]
Template:Country data Botswana 8,082 0.11% 2011 [34]
Template:Country data Canada 23,410 0.32% 2016 [35]
Template:Country data England and Template:Country data Wales 11,247 0.16% 2011 [36]
Template:Country data Mauritius 36 0.0005% 2011 [34]
Template:Country data Namibia 219,760 3.05% 2011 [34]
Template:Country data New Zealand 21,123 0.29% 2006 [34]
Template:Country data South Africa 6,855,082 95.06% 2011 [34]
Template:Country data United States 28,406 0.39% 2016 [37]
Template:Country data Argentina 650 0.009% 2019 [38]
Total 7,211,537

Sociolinguistics

Some state that instead of Afrikaners, which refers to an ethnic group, the terms Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang". (lit. Afrikaans speakers) should be used for people of any ethnic origin who speak Afrikaans. Linguistic identity has not yet established which terms shall prevail, and all three are used in common parlance.[39]

The geographical distribution of Afrikaans in South Africa: density of Afrikaans home-language speakers. Template:Refbegin Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Refend
The geographical distribution of Afrikaans in Namibia.

Afrikaans is also widely spoken in Namibia. Before independence, Afrikaans had equal status with German as an official language. Since independence in 1990, Afrikaans has had constitutional recognition as a national, but not official, language.[40][41] There is a much smaller number of Afrikaans speakers among Zimbabwe's white minority, as most have left the country since 1980. Afrikaans was also a medium of instruction for schools in Bophuthatswana, an Apartheid-era Bantustan.[42] Eldoret in Kenya was founded by Afrikaners.[43]

Many South Africans living and working in Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, the UAE and Kuwait are also Afrikaans-speaking. They have access to Afrikaans websites, news sites such as Netwerk24.com and Sake24, and radio broadcasts over the web, such as those from Radio Sonder Grense, Bokradio and Radio Pretoria. There are also many artists that tour to bring Afrikaans to the emigrants.

Afrikaans has been influential in the development of South African English. Many Afrikaans loanwords have found their way into South African English, such as Script error: No such module "Lang". ("pickup truck"), Script error: No such module "Lang". ("barbecue"), Script error: No such module "Lang". ("tangerine"), Script error: No such module "Lang". (American "sneakers", British "trainers", Canadian "runners"). A few words in standard English are derived from Afrikaans, such as aardvark (lit. "earth pig"), trek ("pioneering journey", in Afrikaans lit. "pull" but used also for "migrate"), spoor ("animal track"), Script error: No such module "Lang". ("Southern African grassland" in Afrikaans, lit. "field"), commando from Afrikaans Script error: No such module "Lang". meaning small fighting unit, Script error: No such module "Lang". ("tree snake") and Script error: No such module "Lang". ("segregation"; more accurately "apartness" or "the state or condition of being apart").

In 1976, secondary-school pupils in Soweto began a rebellion in response to the government's decision that Afrikaans be used as the language of instruction for half the subjects taught in non-White schools (with English continuing for the other half). Although English is the mother tongue of only 8.2% of the population, it is the language most widely understood, and the second language of a majority of South Africans.[44] Afrikaans is more widely spoken than English in the Northern and Western Cape provinces, several hundred kilometres from Soweto.[45] The Black community's opposition to Afrikaans and preference for continuing English instruction was underlined when the government rescinded the policy one month after the uprising: 96% of Black schools chose English (over Afrikaans or native languages) as the language of instruction.[45] Afrikaans-medium schools were also accused of using language policy to deter black African parents.[46] Some of these parents, in part supported by provincial departments of education, initiated litigation which enabled enrolment with English as language of instruction. By 2006 the were 300 single-medium Afrikaans schools, compared to 2,500 in 1994, after most converted to dual-medium education.[46] Due to Afrikaans being viewed as the "language of the white oppressor" by some, pressure has been increased to remove Afrikaans as a teaching language in South African universities, resulting in bloody student protests in 2015.[47][48][49]

Under South Africa's Constitution of 1996, Afrikaans remains an official language, and has equal status to English and nine other languages. The new policy means that the use of Afrikaans is now often reduced in favour of English, or to accommodate the other official languages. In 1996, for example, the South African Broadcasting Corporation reduced the amount of television airtime in Afrikaans, while South African Airways dropped its Afrikaans name Script error: No such module "Lang". from its livery. Similarly, South Africa's diplomatic missions overseas now display the name of the country only in English and their host country's language, and not in Afrikaans. Meanwhile, the constitution of the Western Cape, which went into effect in 1998, declares Afrikaans to be an official language of the province alongside English and Xhosa.[50]

In spite of these moves, the language has remained strong, and Afrikaans newspapers and magazines continue to have large circulation figures. Indeed, the Afrikaans-language general-interest family magazine Script error: No such module "Lang". has the largest readership of any magazine in the country.[51] In addition, a pay-TV channel in Afrikaans called KykNet was launched in 1999, and an Afrikaans music channel, MK (Script error: No such module "Lang".) (lit. 'Music Channel'), in 2005. A large number of Afrikaans books are still published every year, mainly by the publishers Human & Rousseau, Script error: No such module "Lang"., Script error: No such module "Lang"., and Script error: No such module "Lang".. The Afrikaans film trilogy Script error: No such module "Lang". (first released in 2008) caused a reawakening of the Afrikaans film Industry (which had been moribund since the mid to late 1990s Template:According to whom) and Belgian-born singer Karen Zoid's debut single "Script error: No such module "Lang"." (released 2001) caused a resurgence in the Afrikaans music industry, as well as giving rise to the Afrikaans Rock genre.

Afrikaans has two monuments erected in its honour. The first was erected in Script error: No such module "Lang"., South Africa, in 1893, and the second, nowadays better-known Afrikaans Language Monument (Script error: No such module "Lang".), was built in Paarl, South Africa, in 1975.

When the British design magazine Wallpaper described Afrikaans as "one of the world's ugliest languages" in its September 2005 article about the monument,[52] South African billionaire Johann Rupert (chairman of the Richemont Group), responded by withdrawing advertising for brands such as Cartier, Van Cleef & Arpels, Montblanc and Alfred Dunhill from the magazine.[53] The author of the article, Bronwyn Davies, was an English-speaking South African.

Mutual intelligibility with Dutch

Script error: No such module "main". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is ultimately of Dutch origin,Template:SfnTemplate:SfnTemplate:Sfn and there are few lexical differences between the two languages.[54] Afrikaans has a considerably more regular morphology,[55] grammar, and spelling.[56] There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages,[55][57][58] particularly in written form.[56][59][60]

Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages, Portuguese,[61] and Bantu languages,[62] and Afrikaans has also been significantly influenced by South African English.[63] Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.[60] Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch.[60] This is also because Dutch words are much more direct, in comparison to the more descriptive words being used in Afrikaans.[64]Template:Clarify

In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian[65] or between Danish and Swedish.[60] The South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualise the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between (Standard) Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English.[66]

Current status

Use of Afrikaans as a first language by province
Province 1996[67] 2001[67] 2011[67]
Western Cape 58.5% 55.3% 49.7%
Eastern Cape 9.8% 9.6% 10.6%
Northern Cape 57.2% 56.6% 53.8%
Free State 14.4% 11.9% 12.7%
KwaZulu-Natal 1.6% 1.5% 1.6%
North West 8.8% 8.8% 9.0%
Gauteng 15.6% 13.6% 12.4%
Mpumalanga 7.1% 5.5% 7.2%
Limpopo 2.6% 2.6% 2.6%
Template:Country data South Africa 14.4%[68] 13.3%[69] 13.5%[8]

Post-apartheid South Africa has seen a loss of preferential treatment by the government for Afrikaans, in terms of education, social events, media (TV and radio), and general status throughout the country, given that it now shares its place as official language with ten other languages. Nevertheless, Afrikaans remains more prevalent in the media – radio, newspapers and television[70] – than any of the other official languages, except English. More than 300 book titles in Afrikaans are published annually.[71] South African census figures suggest a growing number of speakers in all nine provinces, a total of 6.85 million in 2011 compared to 5.98 million a decade earlier.[72] The South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) projects that a growing majority will be Coloured Afrikaans speakers.[73] Afrikaans speakers experience higher employment rates than other South African language groups, though as of 2012 half a million remain unemployed.[72]

Despite the challenges of demotion and emigration that it faces in South Africa, the Afrikaans vernacular remains competitive, being popular in DSTV pay channels and several internet sites, while generating high newspaper and music CD sales. A resurgence in Afrikaans popular music since the late 1990s has invigorated the language, especially among a younger generation of South Africans. A recent trend is the increased availability of pre-school educational CDs and DVDs. Such media also prove popular with the extensive Afrikaans-speaking emigrant communities who seek to retain language proficiency in a household context.

After years of slumber, Afrikaans language cinema is showing signs of new vigour. The 2007 film Script error: No such module "Lang"., the first full-length Afrikaans movie since Paljas in 1998, is seen as the dawn of a new era in Afrikaans cinema. Several short films have been created and more feature-length movies, such as Script error: No such module "Lang". and Script error: No such module "Lang". (both in 2008) have been produced, besides the 2011 Afrikaans-language film Script error: No such module "Lang"., which was the first Afrikaans film to screen at the Cannes Film Festival. The film Script error: No such module "Lang". was also released in 2011.[74] The Afrikaans Film industry started gaining international recognition via the likes of big Afrikaans Hollywood film stars, like Charlize Theron (Monster) and Sharlto Copley (District 9) promoting their mother tongue.

Afrikaans seems to be returning to the SABC. SABC3 announced early in 2009 that it would increase Afrikaans programming due to the "growing Afrikaans-language market and [their] need for working capital as Afrikaans advertising is the only advertising that sells in the current South African television market". In April 2009, SABC3 started screening several Afrikaans-language programmes.[75] Further latent support for the language derives from its de-politicised image in the eyes of younger-generation South Africans, who less and less often view it as "the language of the oppressor".Script error: No such module "Unsubst". Indeed, there is a groundswell movement within Afrikaans to be inclusive, and to promote itself along with the other indigenous official languages. In Namibia, the percentage of Afrikaans speakers declined from 11.4% (2001 Census) to 10.4% (2011 Census). The major concentrations are in Hardap (41.0%), ǁKaras (36.1%), Erongo (20.5%), Khomas (18.5%), Omaheke (10.0%), Otjozondjupa (9.4%), Kunene (4.2%), and Oshikoto (2.3%).[76]

Many native speakers of Bantu languages and English also speak Afrikaans as a second language. It is widely taught in South African schools, with about 10.3 million second-language students.[77] Even in KwaZulu-Natal (where there are relatively few Afrikaans home-speakers), the majority of pupils opt for Afrikaans as their first additional language because it is regarded as easier than Zulu.[78]

Afrikaans is offered at many universities outside South Africa, for example in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Poland, Russia and America.[79]

Grammar

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In Afrikaans grammar, there is no distinction between the infinitive and present forms of verbs, with the exception of the verbs 'to be' and 'to have':

infinitive form present indicative form Dutch English
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang". be
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". have

In addition, verbs do not conjugate differently depending on the subject. For example,

Afrikaans Dutch English
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I am
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". you are (sing.)
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". he/she/it is
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". we are
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". you are (plur.)
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". they are

Only a handful of Afrikaans verbs have a preterite, namely the auxiliary Script error: No such module "Lang". ("to be"), the modal verbs, and the verb Script error: No such module "Lang". ("to think"). The preterite of Script error: No such module "Lang". ("may") is rare in contemporary Afrikaans.

Afrikaans Dutch English
present past present past present past
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I am I was
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I can I could
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I must (I had to)
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I want to I wanted to
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I shall I should
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I may I might
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I think I thought

All other verbs use the perfect tense, het + past participle (ge-), for the past. Therefore, there is no distinction in Afrikaans between I drank and I have drunk. (In colloquial German, the past tense is also often replaced with the perfect.)

Afrikaans Dutch English
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I drank
Script error: No such module "Lang". I have drunk

When telling a longer story, Afrikaans speakers usually avoid the perfect and simply use the present tense, or historical present tense instead (as is possible, but less common, in English as well).

A particular feature of Afrikaans is its use of the double negative; it is classified in Afrikaans as Script error: No such module "Lang". and is something that is absent from the other West Germanic standard languages. For example,

Template:Lang-af
Template:Lang-nl
English: He can not speak Afrikaans. / He can't speak Afrikaans.

Both French and San origins have been suggested for double negation in Afrikaans. While double negation is still found in Low Franconian dialects in West-Flanders and in some "isolated" villages in the centre of the Netherlands (such as Garderen), it takes a different form, which is not found in Afrikaans. The following is an example:

Template:Lang-af* (lit. I want not this do not.)
Template:Lang-nl
English: I do not want to do this.

* Compare with Script error: No such module "Lang"., which changes the meaning to "I want not to do this." Whereas Script error: No such module "Lang". emphasizes a lack of desire to act, Script error: No such module "Lang". emphasizes the act itself.

The Script error: No such module "Lang". was the Middle Dutch way to negate but it has been suggested that since Script error: No such module "Lang". became highly non-voiced, Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang". was needed to complement the Script error: No such module "Lang".. With time the Script error: No such module "Lang". disappeared in most Dutch dialects.

The double negative construction has been fully grammaticalised in standard Afrikaans and its proper use follows a set of fairly complex rules as the examples below show:

Afrikaans Dutch (literally translated) More correct Dutch Literal English Idiomatic English
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I did (not) know that he would (not) come. I did (not) know that he was (not) going to come.
Script error: No such module "Lang".Template:NoteTag Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". He will not come, as he is sick. He is sick and is not going to come.
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". It is not so difficult to learn Afrikaans.

A notable exception to this is the use of the negating grammar form that coincides with negating the English present participle. In this case there is only a single negation.

Template:Lang-af
Template:Lang-nl
English: He is in [the] hospital, though he eats not.

Certain words in Afrikaans arise due to grammar. For example, Script error: No such module "Lang"., which literally means "must not", usually becomes Script error: No such module "Lang".; although one does not have to write or say it like this, virtually all Afrikaans speakers will change the two words to Script error: No such module "Lang". in the same way as do not shifts to don't in English.

The Dutch word Script error: No such module "Lang". ("it" in English) does not correspond to Script error: No such module "Lang". in Afrikaans. The Dutch words corresponding to Afrikaans Script error: No such module "Lang". are Script error: No such module "Lang"., Script error: No such module "Lang"., Script error: No such module "Lang". and Script error: No such module "Lang"..

Afrikaans Dutch English
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". have, has
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". the
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". it

Phonology

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Vowels

Monophthong phonemesScript error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".
Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
short long short long short long short long short long
Close Template:IPA link (Template:IPA link) Template:IPA link Template:IPA link Template:IPA link (Template:IPA link)
Mid Template:IPA link Template:IPA link Template:IPA link (Template:IPA link) Template:IPA link (Template:IPA link) Template:IPA link (Template:IPA link)
Near-open (Template:IPA link) (Template:IPA link)
Open Template:IPA link Template:IPA link
  • As phonemes, /iː/ and /uː/ occur only in the words Script error: No such module "Lang". /spiːl/ 'mirror' and Script error: No such module "Lang". /kuːl/ 'bullet', which used to be pronounced with sequences /i.ə/ and /u.ə/, respectively. In other cases, Template:IPAblink and Template:IPAblink occur as allophones of, respectively, /i/ and /u/ before /r/.[80]
  • /y/ is phonetically long Template:IPAblink before /r/.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".
  • /əː/ is always stressed and occurs only in the word Script error: No such module "Lang". 'wedges'.[81]
  • The closest unrounded counterparts of /œ, œː/ are central /ə, əː/, rather than front /e, eː/.[82]
  • /œː, oː/ occur only in a few words.[83]
  • As a phoneme, /æ/ occurs as an allophone of /e/ before /k, χ, l, r/, though this occurs primarily dialectally, most commonly in the former Transvaal and Free State provinces.[84]

Diphthongs

Diphthong phonemes[85][86]
Starting point Ending point
Front Central Back
Mid unrounded ɪø, əi ɪə
rounded œi, ɔi ʊə œu
Open unrounded ai, ɑːi
  • /ɔi, ai/ occur mainly in loanwords.[87]

Consonants

Consonant phonemes
Labial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Dorsal Glottal
Nasal Template:IPA link Template:IPA link Template:IPA link
Plosive voiceless Template:IPA link Template:IPA link Template:IPA link Template:IPA link
voiced Template:IPA link Template:IPA link (Template:IPA link) (Template:IPA link)
Fricative voiceless Template:IPA link Template:IPA link Template:IPA link Template:IPA link
voiced Template:IPA link (Template:IPA link) Template:IPA link Template:IPA link
Approximant Template:IPA link Template:IPA link
Rhotic r

Dialects

A warning sign in Afrikaans: Script error: No such module "Lang". or "Danger, Bear Traps".

Following early dialectal studies of Afrikaans, it was theorised that three main historical dialects probably existed after the Great Trek in the 1830s. These dialects are the Northern Cape, Western Cape, and Eastern Cape dialects.[91] Northern Cape dialect may have resulted from contact between Dutch settlers and the Khoi-Khoi people between the Great Karoo and the Kunene, and Eastern Cape dialect between the Dutch and the Xhosa. Remnants of these dialects still remain in present-day Afrikaans, although the standardising effect of Standard Afrikaans has contributed to a great levelling of differences in modern times.[92]Template:Better source

There is also a prison cant, known as Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang"., which is based on Afrikaans, yet heavily influenced by Zulu. This language is used as a secret language in prison and is taught to initiates.[92]

Script error: No such module "Lang".

The term Script error: No such module "Lang". ("Cape Afrikaans") is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the entire Western Cape dialect; it is more commonly used for a particular sociolect spoken in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. Script error: No such module "Lang". was once spoken by all population groups. However, it became increasingly restricted to the Cape Coloured ethnic group in Cape Town and environs. Kaapse Afrikaans is still understood by the large majority of native Afrikaans speakers in South Africa.

Script error: No such module "Lang". preserves some features more similar to Dutch than to Afrikaans.[93]

  • The 1st person singular pronoun Script error: No such module "Lang". as in Dutch as opposed to Afrikaans Script error: No such module "Lang".
  • The diminutive endings Script error: No such module "Lang"., pronounced as in Dutch and not as /ki/ as in Afrikaans.
  • The use of the form Script error: No such module "Lang". (compare Dutch Script error: No such module "Lang".) as opposed to Afrikaans Script error: No such module "Lang".

Script error: No such module "Lang". has some other features not typically found in Afrikaans.

  • The pronunciation of Script error: No such module "Lang"., normally /j/ as in Dutch is often a /dz/. This is the strongest feature of Script error: No such module "Lang"..
  • The insertion of /j/ after /s/, /t/ and /k/ when followed by /e/, e.g. Script error: No such module "Lang". as opposed to Standard Afrikaans Script error: No such module "Lang"..

Script error: No such module "Lang". is also characterised by much code-switching between English and Afrikaans, especially in the inner-city and lower socio-economic status areas of Cape Town.

An example of characteristic Script error: No such module "Lang".:

Template:Lang-nl
Script error: No such module "Lang".: Script error: No such module "Lang".
Template:Lang-af
English (literal): And I say to you, what seek you here by me? I seek you not! No, go now away!
English: And I'm telling you, what are you looking for here? I'm not looking for you! No, go away now!

Script error: No such module "Lang".

The term Script error: No such module "Lang". ("Afrikaans of the Orange River") is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the Northern Cape dialect; it is more commonly used for the regional peculiarities of standard Afrikaans spoken in the Upington/Orange River wine district of South Africa.

Some of the characteristics of Script error: No such module "Lang". are the plural form Script error: No such module "Lang". (Ma-Script error: No such module "Lang"., Script error: No such module "Lang".), variant pronunciation such as in Script error: No such module "Lang". ("Church") and Script error: No such module "Lang". ("money") and the ending Script error: No such module "Lang"., which indicates possession.

Influences on Afrikaans from other languages

Malay

Due to the early settlement of a Cape Malay community in Cape Town, who are now known as Coloureds, numerous Classical Malay words were brought into Afrikaans. Some of these words entered Dutch via people arriving from, what is now known as Indonesia as part of their colonial heritage. Malay words in Afrikaans include:[94]

  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., which means 'very'/'much'/'many' (from Script error: No such module "Lang".) is a very commonly used Afrikaans word, different from its Dutch equivalent Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang"..
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., Afrikaans for jacket (from Script error: No such module "Lang"., ultimately from Persian), used where Dutch would use Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang".. The word Script error: No such module "Lang". in Dutch is now considered archaic and only used in written, literary texts.
  • bobotie, a traditional Cape-Malay dish, made from spiced minced meat baked with an egg-based topping.
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., which means banana. This is different from the common Dutch word Script error: No such module "Lang".. The Indonesian word Script error: No such module "Lang". is also used in Dutch, though usage is more common.
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., which means saucer (from Script error: No such module "Lang"., also from Persian).

Portuguese

Some words originally came from Portuguese such as Script error: No such module "Lang". ("umbrella") from the Portuguese Script error: No such module "Lang"., Script error: No such module "Lang". ("pen/cattle enclosure") from the Portuguese Script error: No such module "Lang"., and Script error: No such module "Lang". ("corn", from Script error: No such module "Lang".). These words have become common in South Africa to an extent of being used in many other South African languages. Some of these words also exist in Dutch, like Script error: No such module "Lang". "parasol",[95] though usage is less common and meanings can slightly differ.

Khoisan languages

  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., meaning cannabis[94]
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., meaning lizard, diminutive adapted from Khoekhoe word[96]
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., meaning insect, from the Khoisan xo-xo
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., blanket of animal hides
  • Script error: No such module "Lang". walking stick from Khoekhoe[96]

Some of these words also exist in Dutch, though with a more specific meaning: Script error: No such module "Lang". for example means "South-African tribal javelin"[97] and Script error: No such module "Lang". means "South-African tribal blanket of animal hides".[98]

Bantu languages

Loanwords from Bantu languages in Afrikaans include the names of indigenous birds, such as Script error: No such module "Lang". and Script error: No such module "Lang"., and indigenous plants, such as Script error: No such module "Lang". and Script error: No such module "Lang"..[99]

  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., from the Zulu word Script error: No such module "Lang". meaning "scholar" or "student",[100] but used to mean someone who is a student of/expert on a certain subject, i.e. He is a language Script error: No such module "Lang"..
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., meaning bride price, from (and referring to) lobolo of the Nguni languages[101]
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., the grey crowned crane, known in Latin as Balearica regulorum
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., medium-sized dioecious tree known in Latin as Sclerocarya birrea[102]
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., species of thatching grass known as Hyparrhenia[103]
  • Script error: No such module "Lang"., deciduous tree also known by its Latin name, Spirostachys africana[104]
  • Script error: No such module "Lang". / Script error: No such module "Lang"., an adaption of the word Script error: No such module "Lang"., meaning "to go home" or "to knock off (from work)".[105]

French

The revoking of the Edict of Nantes on 22 October 1685 was a milestone in the history of South Africa, for it marked the beginning of the great Huguenot exodus from France. It is estimated that between 250,000 and 300,000 Protestants left France between 1685 and 1700; out of these, according to Louvois, 100,000 had received military training. A measure of the calibre of these immigrants and of their acceptance by host countries (in particular South Africa) is given by H. V. Morton in his book: In Search of South Africa (London, 1948). The Huguenots were responsible for a great linguistic contribution to Afrikaans, particularly in terms of military terminology as many of them fought on the battlefields during the wars of the Great Trek.

Most of the words in this list are descendants from Dutch borrowings from French, Old French or Latin, and are not direct influences from French on Afrikaans.

Afrikaans Dutch French English
advies advies avis advice
alarm alarm alarme alarm
ammunisie ammunitie, munitie munition ammunition
amusant amusant amusant funny
artillerie artillerie artillerie artillery
Script error: No such module "Lang". atelier atelier studio
bagasie bagage bagage luggage
bastion bastion bastion bastion
bataljon bataljon bataillon battalion
battery batterij batterie battery
biblioteek bibliotheek bibliothèque library
faktuur factuur facture invoice
fort fort fort fort
Script error: No such module "Lang". frikadel fricadelle meatball
garnisoen garnizoen garnison garrison
generaal generaal général general
granaat granaat grenade grenade
infanterie infanterie infanterie infantry
interessant interessant intéressant interesting
kaliber kaliber calibre calibre
kanon kanon canon canon
kanonnier kanonnier canonier gunner
kardoes kardoes, cartouche cartouche cartridge
kaptein kapitein capitaine captain
kolonel kolonel colonel colonel
kommandeur commandeur commandeur commander
kwartier kwartier quartier quarter
luitenant luitenant lieutenant lieutenant
magasyn magazijn magasin magazine
manier manier manière way
marsjeer marcheer, marcheren marcher (to) march
meubels meubels meubles furniture
militêr militair militaire militarily
morsel morzel morceau piece
mortier mortier mortier mortar
muit muit, muiten mutiner (to) mutiny
musket musket mousquet musket
muur muur mur wall
myn mijn mine mine
offisier officier officier officer
orde orde ordre order
papier papier papier paper
pionier pionier pionnier pioneer
Script error: No such module "Lang". plafond plafond ceiling
plat plat plat flat
pont pont pont ferry
provoos provoost prévôt chief
rondte rondte, ronde ronde round
salvo salvo salve salvo
soldaat soldaat soldat soldier
tante tante tante aunt
tapyt tapijt tapis carpet
tros tros trousse bunch

Orthography

There are many parallels between the Dutch orthography conventions and those used for Afrikaans. There are 26 letters.

In Afrikaans, many consonants are dropped from the earlier Dutch spelling. For example, Script error: No such module "Lang". ('only') in Dutch becomes Script error: No such module "Lang". in Afrikaans. Also, Afrikaans and some Dutch dialects make no distinction between /s/ and /z/, having merged the latter into the former; while the word for "south" is written Script error: No such module "Lang". in Dutch, it is spelled Script error: No such module "Lang". in Afrikaans (as well as dialectal Dutch writings) to represent this merger. Similarly, the Dutch digraph Script error: No such module "Lang"., normally pronounced as /ɛi/, corresponds to Afrikaans Script error: No such module "Lang"., except where it replaces the Dutch suffix Script error: No such module "Lang". which is pronounced as /lək/, as in Script error: No such module "Lang". > Script error: No such module "Lang"..

Another difference is the indefinite article, Script error: No such module "Lang". in Afrikaans and Script error: No such module "Lang". in Dutch. "A book" is Script error: No such module "Lang". in Afrikaans, whereas it is either Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang". in Dutch. This Script error: No such module "Lang". is usually pronounced as just a weak vowel, [ə].

The diminutive suffix in Afrikaans is Script error: No such module "Lang"., Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang"., whereas in Dutch it is Script error: No such module "Lang". or Script error: No such module "Lang"., hence a "bit" is ʼn Script error: No such module "Lang". in Afrikaans and Script error: No such module "Lang". in Dutch.

The letters c, q, x, and z occur almost exclusively in borrowings from French, English, Greek and Latin. This is usually because words that had c and ch in the original Dutch are spelled with k and g, respectively, in Afrikaans. Similarly original qu and x are spelt kw and ks, respectively. For example, Script error: No such module "Lang". instead of equatoriaal, and Script error: No such module "Lang". instead of excuus.

The vowels with diacritics in non-loanword Afrikaans are: á, é, è, ê, ë, í, î, ï, ó, ô, ö, ú, û, ü, ý. Diacritics are ignored when alphabetising, though they are still important, even when typing the diacritic forms may be difficult. For example, Script error: No such module "Lang". ("ate") instead of the 3 e's alongside each other: *Script error: No such module "Lang"., which can never occur in Afrikaans, or Script error: No such module "Lang"., which translates to "say", whereas Script error: No such module "Lang". is a possessive form. The acute is only part of the standard spelling in loanwords and proper nouns. When it comes to non-loanwords, the acute diacritic (á, é, í, ó, ú, ý) is used to place emphasis on a word, by adding it to the emphasised syllable of the word. For example, sál ("will" (verb)), néé ('no'), móét ("must"), ("he"), gewéét ("knew"). Note, however, that the acute is only placed on the i if it is the only vowel in the emphasised word: wil ('want' (verb)) becomes wíl, but lui ('lazy') becomes lúi.

Initial apostrophes

A few short words in Afrikaans take initial apostrophes. In modern Afrikaans, these words are always written in lower case (except if the entire line is uppercase), and if they occur at the beginning of a sentence, the next word is capitalised. Three examples of such apostrophed words are Script error: No such module "Lang".. The last (the indefinite article) is the only apostrophed word that is common in modern written Afrikaans, since the other examples are shortened versions of other words (Script error: No such module "Lang". and Script error: No such module "Lang"., respectively) and are rarely found outside of a poetic context.[106]

Here are a few examples:

Apostrophed version Usual version Translation Notes
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". I said it Uncommon, more common: Script error: No such module "Lang".
Script error: No such module "Lang". Script error: No such module "Lang". Did you eat it? Extremely uncommon
Script error: No such module "Lang". A man walks there Standard Afrikaans pronounces Script error: No such module "Lang". as a schwa vowel.

The apostrophe and the following letter are regarded as two separate characters, and are never written using a single glyph, although a single character variant of the indefinite article appears in Unicode, Script error: No such module "Lang"..

Table of characters

For more on the pronunciation of the letters below, see Help:IPA/Afrikaans.

Afrikaans letters and pronunciation
Grapheme IPA Examples and Notes
a /a/, /ɑː/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('apple'; /a/), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('languages'; /ɑː/). Represents /a/ in closed syllables and /ɑː/ in stressed open syllables
aa /ɑː/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('monkey', 'ape')
aai /ɑːi/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('turn')
ae /ɑə/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('questions'); can be considered two separate syllables
ai /ai/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('many', 'much' or 'very'), Script error: No such module "Lang". (expression of frustration or resignation)
b /b/, /p/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('tree')
c /s/, /k/ Found only in borrowed words or proper nouns; the former pronunciation occurs before 'e', 'i', or 'y'; featured in the Latinate plural ending Script error: No such module "Lang". (singular form Script error: No such module "Lang".)
ch /ʃ/, /x/, /k/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('surgeon'; /ʃ/; typically Script error: No such module "Lang". is used instead), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('chemistry'; /x/), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('chitin'; /k/). Found only in recent loanwords and in proper nouns
d /d/, /t/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('day'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('part', 'divide', 'share')
dj /d͡ʒ/, /k/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('teak'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('sandwich'). Used to transcribe foreign words for the former pronunciation, and in the diminutive suffix Script error: No such module "Lang". for the latter in words ending with d
e /ɛ(ː)/, /æ(ː)/, /ɪə/, /ɪ/, /ə/ Script error: No such module "Lang". (/e/), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('person', /eː/) (lengthened before /n/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('meal', /ɪə/ and /ə/ respectively), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('I', /æ/), berg ('mountain', /æː/) (lengthened before /r/). /ɪ/ is the unstressed allophone of /ɪə/
è /ɛ/ Found in loanwords (like crèche) and proper nouns (like Eugène) where the spelling was maintained, and in four non-loanwords: Script error: No such module "Lang". ('yes?', 'right?', 'eh?'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('here, take this!' or '[this is] yours!'), ('huh?', 'what?', 'eh?'), and appèl ('(formal) appeal' (noun)).
ê /ɛː/, /æː/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('to say'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('world'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('file') (Allophonically /æː/ before /(ə)r/)
ë - Diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus Script error: No such module "Lang"., Script error: No such module "Lang". and Script error: No such module "Lang". are pronounced like 'e', 'ee' and 'ei', respectively
ee /ɪə/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('to know'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('one')
eeu /iːu/ leeu ('lion'), eeu ('century', 'age')
ei /ɛi/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('to lead')
eu /ɪɵ/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('son' or 'lad')
f /f/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('bicycle')
g /x/, /ɡ/ /ɡ/ exists as the allophone of /x/ if at the end of a root word preceded by a stressed single vowel + /r/ and succeeded by a schwa, e.g. Script error: No such module "Lang". ('mountain') is pronounced as /bæːrx/, and Script error: No such module "Lang". is pronounced as /bæːrɡə/
gh /ɡ/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('golf'). Used for /ɡ/ when it is not an allophone of /x/; found only in borrowed words. If the h instead begins the next syllable, the two letters are pronounced separately.
h /ɦ/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('hail'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('dog')
i /i/, /ə/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('child'; /ə/), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('ink'; /ə/), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('crisis'; /i/ and /ə/ respectively), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('electricity'; /i/ for all three; third 'i' is part of diphthong 'ei')
î /əː/ Script error: No such module "Lang". (plural of Script error: No such module "Lang".; 'wedges' or 'quoins')
ï - Found in words such as Script error: No such module "Lang". ('to influence'). The diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus Script error: No such module "Lang". and Script error: No such module "Lang". are pronounced like 'i' and 'ie' respectively
Template:Not a typo /i(ː)/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('something'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('four')
j /j/ Script error: No such module "Lang". (plural 'you')
k /k/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('cat'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('can' (verb) or 'jug')
l /l/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('laugh')
m /m/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('man')
n /n/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('nail')
ng /ŋ/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('to sing')
o /o/, /ʊə/, /ʊ/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('up(on)'; /o/), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('size'; /ʊə/), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('police'; /ʊ/)
ô /oː/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('tomorrow')
ö - Found in words such as Script error: No such module "Lang". ('co-operation'). The diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus Script error: No such module "Lang". is pronounced the same as 'o' based on the following remainder of the word.
oe /u(ː)/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('book'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('course', 'direction')
oei /ui/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('cow')
oo /ʊə/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('uncle' or 'sir')
ooi /oːi/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('pretty', 'beautiful'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('saying for little girl' or 'invitation')
ou /ɵu/ By itself means ('guy'). Sometimes spelled Script error: No such module "Lang". in loanwords and surnames, for example Script error: No such module "Lang"..
p /p/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('pot'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('purple' — or 'press' indicating the news media; the latter is often spelled with an <ê>)
q /k/ Found only in foreign words with original spelling maintained; typically Script error: No such module "Lang". is used instead
r /r/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('red')
s /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('six'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('voice' or 'vote'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('position', /z/ for first 's', /s/ for second 's'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('rational', /ʃ/) Script error: No such module "Lang". ('visual', /ʒ/)
sj /ʃ/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('shawl'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('chocolate')
t /t/, /ʃ/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('table'), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('actuary'; /ʃ/)
tj /tʃ/, /k/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('whine like a dog' or 'to cry incessantly'). The latter pronunciation occurs in the common diminutive suffix Script error: No such module "Lang".
u /ɵ/, /y(ː)/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('shit' or 'nonsense', a common expletive), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('wall')
û /ɵː/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('bridges')
ü - Found in words such as Script error: No such module "Lang". ('reunion'). The diaeresis indicates the start of a new syllable, thus Script error: No such module "Lang". is pronounced the same Script error: No such module "Lang"., except when found in proper nouns and surnames from German, like Script error: No such module "Lang"..
ui /ɵi/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('out')
uu /yː/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('hour')
v /f/, /v/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('fish'), visuëel ('visual')
w /v/, /w/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('water'; /v/); allophonically /w/ after obstruents within a root; an example: Script error: No such module "Lang". ('brush'; /w/)
x /z/, /ks/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('xiphoid'; /z/), Script error: No such module "Lang". ('x-ray'; /ks/).
y /əi/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('bite')
z /z/ Script error: No such module "Lang". ('Zulu'). Found only in onomatopoeia and loanwords

Afrikaans phrases

Although there are many different dialects and accents, the transcription would be fairly standard.

Afrikaans IPA Dutch IPA English German
Script error: No such module "Lang". [ɦalɵu ɦu χɑːn dət] Script error: No such module "Lang".
Also used: Script error: No such module "Lang".
[ɦɑloː ɦu ɣaːn ɦət] Hello! How goes it? (Hello! How are you?) Script error: No such module "Lang". (Script error: No such module "Lang".)
Script error: No such module "Lang". [baiə χut daŋki] Script error: No such module "Lang". [ɦeːl ɣut dɑŋk jə] Very well, thank you. Script error: No such module "Lang".
Script error: No such module "Lang". [prɑːt jəi afrikɑːns] Script error: No such module "Lang". [spreːk/praːt jɛi̯/jə ɑfrikaːns] Do you speak Afrikaans? Script error: No such module "Lang".
Script error: No such module "Lang". [prɑːt jəi ɛŋəls] Script error: No such module "Lang". [spreːk/praːt jɛi̯/jə ɛŋəls] Do you speak English? Script error: No such module "Lang".
Script error: No such module "Lang". [jɑː] Script error: No such module "Lang". [jaː] Yes. Script error: No such module "Lang".
Script error: No such module "Lang". [nɪə] Script error: No such module "Lang". [neː] No. Script error: No such module "Lang".
Also: Script error: No such module "Lang". (Colloquial)
Script error: No such module "Lang". [ə biki] Script error: No such module "Lang". [ə beːtjə] A bit. Script error: No such module "Lang". Sometimes shortened in text: "'n bisschen"
Script error: No such module "Lang". [vat əs jœu nɑːm] Script error: No such module "Lang". / Script error: No such module "Lang". [ʋɑt ɪs jɑu̯ naːm] What is your name? Script error: No such module "Lang". / Script error: No such module "Lang".
Script error: No such module "Lang". [di kən(d◌̚)ərs prɑːt ˌafriˈkɑːns] Script error: No such module "Lang". [də kɪndərən spreːkən ɑfrikaːns] The children speak Afrikaans. Script error: No such module "Lang".
Script error: No such module "Lang".
Less common: Script error: No such module "Lang"..
[æk əs lif fər jɵu] Script error: No such module "Lang".
Common in Southern Dutch: Script error: No such module "Lang"..
[ɪk ɦɑu̯ vɑn jɑu̯/jə], [ɪk ɦɛb jə/jɑu̯/y lif] I love you. Script error: No such module "Lang".
Also: Script error: No such module "Lang". (Colloquial; virtually no romantic connotation)

In the Dutch language the word Script error: No such module "Lang". means African, in the general sense. Consequently, Afrikaans is commonly denoted as Script error: No such module "Lang".. This ambiguity also exists in Afrikaans itself and is resolved either in the context of its usage, or by using Script error: No such module "Lang". in the adjective sense (e.g. Afrika-olifant for African elephant).

A handful of Afrikaans words are exactly the same as in English. The following Afrikaans sentences, for example, are exactly the same in the two languages, in terms of both their meaning and spelling; only their pronunciation differs.

  • Script error: No such module "Lang". ([məi pɛn vas ən məi ɦant])Template:Fact
  • Script error: No such module "Lang". ([məi ɦant əs ən varm vɑːtər])Template:Fact

Sample text

Psalm 23 1983 translation:[107]

Die Here is my Herder, ek kom niks kort nie.
Hy laat my rus in groen weivelde. Hy bring my by waters waar daar vrede is.
Hy gee my nuwe krag. Hy lei my op die regte paaie tot eer van Sy naam.
Selfs al gaan ek deur donker dieptes, sal ek nie bang wees nie, want U is by my. In U hande is ek veilig.

Psalm 23 1953 translation:[108]

Die Here is my Herder, niks sal my ontbreek nie.
Hy laat my neerlê in groen weivelde; na waters waar rus is, lei Hy my heen.
Hy verkwik my siel; Hy lei my in die spore van geregtigheid, om sy Naam ontwil.
Al gaan ek ook in 'n dal van doodskaduwee, ek sal geen onheil vrees nie; want U is met my: u stok en u staf die vertroos my.

Lord's Prayer (Afrikaans New Living translation)Script error: No such module "Unsubst".

Ons Vader in die hemel, laat U Naam geheilig word.
Laat U koningsheerskappy spoedig kom.
Laat U wil hier op aarde uitgevoer word soos in die hemel.
Gee ons die porsie brood wat ons vir vandag nodig het.
En vergeef ons ons sondeskuld soos ons ook óns skuldenaars vergewe het.
Bewaar ons sodat ons nie aan verleiding sal toegee nie; en bevry ons van die greep van die Bose.
Want van U is die koninkryk,
en die krag,
en die heerlikheid,
tot in ewigheid. Amen

Lord's Prayer (Original translation):Script error: No such module "Unsubst".

Onse Vader wat in die hemel is,
laat U Naam geheilig word;
laat U koninkryk kom;
laat U wil geskied op die aarde,
net soos in die hemel.
Gee ons vandag ons daaglikse brood;
en vergeef ons ons skulde
soos ons ons skuldenaars vergewe
en laat ons nie in die versoeking nie
maar verlos ons van die Bose
Want aan U behoort die koninkryk
en die krag
en die heerlikheid
tot in ewigheid. Amen

See also

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Notes

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References

Citations

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Sources

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Further reading

External links

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  10. The changed spelling rule was introduced in article 1, rule 3, of the Dutch "orthography law" Wet voorschriften schrijfwijze Nederlandsche taal of 14 February 1947. In 1954 the Word list of the Dutch language which regulates the spelling of individual words including the word Afrikaans was first published.
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  12. Afrikaans was historically called Cape Dutch; see Template:Harvnb, Template:Harvnb, Template:Harvnb, Template:Harvnb, Template:Harvnb, Template:Harvnb.
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  15. Alatis, Hamilton, Ai-Hui Tan (2002). Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2000: Linguistics, Language and the Professions: Education, Journalism, Law, Medicine, and Technology. Washington, DC: University Press. Template:ISBN, p. 132.
  16. Keith Brown and Sarah Ogilvie, eds. (2008). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. Template:ISBN, p. 8.
  17. Hans den Besten, 1989. From Khoekhoe foreignertalk via Hottentot Dutch to Afrikaans: the creation of a novel grammar. In Pütz & Dirven (eds.), Wheels within wheels: papers of the Duisburg symposium on pidgin and creole languages, pp. 207–250. Frankfurt-am-Main: Peter Lang.
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  37. 2016 American Community Survey, 5-year estimates (https://usa.ipums.org/usa/sda/)
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  50. Constitution of the Western Cape, 1997, Chapter 1, section 5(1)(a)
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  52. Rupert snubs mag over Afrikaans slur, Business Africa, 5 December 2005.
  53. Afrikaans stars join row over 'ugly language' Cape Argus, 10 December 2005.
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  70. Oranje FM, Radio Sonder Grense, Jacaranda FM, Radio Pretoria, Rapport, Beeld, Die Burger, Die Son, Afrikaans news is run everyday; the PRAAG website is a web-based news service. On pay channels it is provided as second language on all sports, Kyknet
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